Australopithecus africanus — The word “Australopithecus” means “southern ape. Raymond Dart, professor of anatomy at Witwatersrand University in Johannesburg, was the first to study these fossils. In at Taung in South Africa, Dart discovered a fossil skull consisting of a full face, teeth and jaws, and an endocranial cast of the brain. The brain size was cc. Its age is currently felt to be around two to three million years old. Dart was convinced that some teeth were man-like and thus concluded a transition between apes and man. His opinions on the matter of this particular skull were largely scorned by the scientists of this time who considered it nothing more than a young chimpanzee now considered to be about three years of age. The skull was soon known derisively as “Dart’s baby. With Piltdown Man’s human cranium and apelike jaw, it was hard to reconcile it to the Taung Child.
How Good Are Those Young-Earth Arguments?
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It follows that uranium-lead, potassium-argon (K-Ar), and Rubidium-Strontium (Rb-Sr) decay can be used for very long time periods, whilst radiocarbon dating can only be used up to about 70, years.
These are K-Ar data obtained on glauconite, a potassium-bearing clay mineral that forms in some marine sediment. Woodmorappe fails to mention, however, that these data were obtained as part of a controlled experiment to test, on samples of known age, the applicability of the K-Ar method to glauconite and to illite, another clay mineral. He also neglects to mention that most of the 89 K-Ar ages reported in their study agree very well with the expected ages. Evernden and others 43 found that these clay minerals are extremely susceptible to argon loss when heated even slightly, such as occurs when sedimentary rocks are deeply buried.
As a result, glauconite is used for dating only with extreme caution. The ages from the Coast Range batholith in Alaska Table 2 are referenced by Woodmorappe to a report by Lanphere and others Whereas Lanphere and his colleagues referred to these two K-Ar ages of and million years, the ages are actually from another report and were obtained from samples collected at two localities in Canada, not Alaska.
There is nothing wrong with these ages; they are consistent with the known geologic relations and represent the crystallization ages of the Canadian samples. The Liberian example Table 2 is from a report by Dalrymple and others These authors studied dikes of basalt that intruded Precambrian crystalline basement rocks and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks in western Liberia.
The dikes cutting the Precambrian basement gave K-Ar ages ranging from to million years Woodmorappe erroneously lists this higher age as million years , whereas those cutting the Mesozoic sedimentary rocks gave K-Ar ages of from to million years. Woodmorappe does not mention that the experiments in this study were designed such that the anomalous results were evident, the cause of the anomalous results was discovered, and the crystallization ages of the Liberian dikes were unambiguously determined.
The Liberian study is, in fact, an excellent example of how geochronologists design experiments so that the results can be checked and verified. The final example listed in Table 2 is a supposed 34 billion-year Rb-Sr isochron age on diabase of the Pahrump Group from Panamint Valley, California, and is referenced to a book by Faure and Powell
Carbon Dating Carbon dating to determine the age of fossil remains In this section we will explore the use of carbon dating to determine the age of fossil remains. Carbon is a key element in biologically important molecules. During the lifetime of an organism, carbon is brought into the cell from the environment in the form of either carbon dioxide or carbon-based food molecules such as glucose; then used to build biologically important molecules such as sugars, proteins, fats, and nucleic acids.
These molecules are subsequently incorporated into the cells and tissues that make up living things. Therefore, organisms from a single-celled bacteria to the largest of the dinosaurs leave behind carbon-based remains.
Potassium–argon dating, abbreviated K–Ar dating, is a radiometric dating method used in geochronology and is based on measurement of the product of the radioactive decay of an isotope of potassium (K) into argon (Ar). Potassium is a common element found in many materials, such as micas, clay minerals, tephra, and these materials, the decay product
The Karelian Bear Dog is said to have originated with the Vikings alongside several other varieties of Spitz-type dogs for use as a hunting dog in Karelian region of Northern Europe; an area currently divided between the Russian Republic of Karelia, Russian Leningrad Oblast, and Finland the regions of South Karelia and North Karelia as the result of conflicts between the nations. Several varieties of these Spitz-types dating back to the age of the Vikings still exist today.
Over the centuries through selective breeding these Spitz-type dogs were further developed and refined to fulfill specific roles such as hunting, herding and pulling sleds. It was from these early Spitz-types developed to hunt small game such as squirrels and marten, through larger more aggressive game such as moose, wolf and the Eurasian brown bear, that the Karelian Bear Dog came to be. These antecedents to the modern day Karelian Bear Dog also resulted in a nearly identical breed known as the Russian-European Laika.
Through the excavation of Viking era graves in Denmark, Brittany, the Isle of Man and elsewhere the popularity of this breed as a working dog becomes evident, as they are frequently found to be buried with their masters. It is believed that this Viking era custom of burying the dog with its master allowed the dogs to accompany their master in the afterlife, and guide them to the underworld.
In Finland which had previously been ceded to Russia in gained its independence as a result of the Russian Revolution; a conflict that destroyed the Tsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Soviet Union. This also marked the split of the Karelian Bear Dog on the Finnish side of Karelia from the Russian-European Laika on the Russian side of Karelia, which up until this point were basically the same breed of dog. The destruction of World War II nearly brought the breed to the brink of extinction as Finland became embroiled in numerous conflicts throughout the duration of the war.
Starting in November of , when Russia attacked Finland in what was to become known as the Winter War, a war that raged across much of Karelia.
Subscribe To Our Newsletter! Let’s try your email address again! Reader Procrustes tweeted at us to ask: Why not just measure the whole life? Decay and Dating At the center of every atom is a dense region called a nucleus, which consists of protons and neutrons. In some atoms, the forces in the nucleus are balanced and the nucleus is stable.
Oct 25, · Pretty easy to find, just ask the local students. Takes less than 30 minutes to get in and out. The story behind it and the history dating back hundreds of years is very cool, especially as the University was opened before America was even discovered.
The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years. We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods.
We are told that of all the radiometric dates that are measured, only a few percent are anomalous. This gives us the impression that all but a small percentage of the dates computed by radiometric methods agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found, and that all of these various methods almost always give ages that agree with each other to within a few percentage points. Since there doesn’t seem to be any systematic error that could cause so many methods to agree with each other so often, it seems that there is no other rational conclusion than to accept these dates as accurate.
However, this causes a problem for those who believe based on the Bible that life has only existed on the earth for a few thousand years, since fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be over million years old by radiometric methods, and some fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be billions of years old.
Simulating Radioactive Decay
A indicates alpha decay; B indicates beta decay. We can calculate the half-lives of all of these elements. All the intermediate nuclides between U and Pb are highly unstable, with short half-lives. Then any excess of Pb must be the result of the decay of U
Here in Israel, we’re also under fire, of a different type. The Arabs in Gaza are continuing to send their burning balloons over the fence while the media and government basically ignore the ‘mini-war’ being fought in Israel’s south.
This age is obtained from radiometric dating and is assumed by evolutionists to provide a sufficiently long time-frame for Darwinian evolution. And OE Christians theistic evolutionists see no problem with this dating whilst still accepting biblical creation, see Radiometric Dating – A Christian Perspective. This is the crucial point: Some claim Genesis in particular, and the Bible in general looks mythical from this standpoint. A full discussion of the topic must therefore include the current scientific challenge to the OE concept.
This challenge is mainly headed by Creationism which teaches a young-earth YE theory. A young earth is considered to be typically just 6, years old since this fits the creation account and some dating deductions from Genesis. The crucial point here is: Accepted Dating Methods Here we outline some dating methods , both absolute and relative, that are widely accepted and used by the scientific community.
Radioactive Half-Life Formula
Let’s look closely at how the half-life affects an isotope. Suppose you have 10 grams of Barium It has a half-life of 86 minutes.
As explained on pages –, other heat sources are generating heat within the earth, so these thicknesses of granite would be even granite crust is generally estimated to be at least 50 km (30 miles) thick. Therefore, steady state has not been reached.
The age of Half-life. Half life – 1. Why not use Ca? Dissolve K out of sample 16 Apr Potassium-argon dating is a method for estimating the age of of the rock depends on the half-life of potassium the time it takes for half the relative age dating concepts. The original element is The following table is a sample of different element half-lives. This technique uses the same minerals and rocks as for K-Ar dating but With a half life of years, 14C decays by beta emission back into the 14N.
Carbon Dating half life activity
For each pair of students, you will need: Context This is the second lesson in a three-lesson series about isotopes, radioactive decay, and the nucleus. The first lesson, Isotopes of Pennies , introduces the idea of isotopes. An Analogy to Carbon Dating , is based on gathering evidence in the present and extrapolating it to the past. To do this lesson and understand half-life and rates of radioactive decay, students should understand ratios and the multiplication of fractions, and be somewhat comfortable with probability.
The Karelian Bear Dog is defined as a compact, lean muscular middle sized Spitz type dog. Males should measure between inches at the withers, while females should be inches, the ideal weight for males is between 55 and 60lbs, and lbs for females.
Then, two weeks after publishing his findings, he was fired. Now California State University at Northridge has paid Armitage a six-figure sum to settle his wrongful termination suit based on religious discrimination. The case of Armitage is the latest to show the mounting hostility Christians face in academics and other public arenas. The whole discussion of evolution ends if you show that the earth is young.
You can just erase evolution off the whiteboard because of soft tissue in dinosaur bones. He had published some 30 articles in scientific journals about his specialty. In May , Armitage went on a dinosaur dig at the famous fossil site of Hell Creek in Montana, where he unearthed the largest triceratops horn ever found there. Back at CSUN, he put the fossil under his microscope and made the startling discovery: If the dinosaur were 65 million years old, the soft tissue could not have possibly remained, he says.
His findings seconded groundbreaking discoveries by noted molecular paleontologist Mary Schweitzer , who triggered an earthquake in the world of paleontology when she published about soft tissue in dinosaur bones in Schweitzer subsequently postulated that iron is responsible for preserving the soft tissue. Two week later, he found himself without a job.
University settles lawsuit with scientist fired after he found soft tissue in dinosaur bones
Carbon 14 is used for this example: This nullifies the carbon method as well as demonstrating that the earth is less than 10, years old. The above is offered as a simple fact of research. Knowing how faulty creationist “facts” can be, let’s do a little research of our own. One suspects that the scientific world would not be using the carbon method if it were so obviously flawed.
RADIOMETRIC DATING. he question of the ages of the Earth and its rock formations and features has fascinated philosophers, theologians, and scientists for centuries, primarily because the answers put our lives in temporal perspective.
Unlike the radioactive isotopes discussed above, these isotopes are constantly being replenished in small amounts in one of two ways. The bottom two entries, uranium and thorium , are replenished as the long-lived uranium atoms decay. These will be discussed in the next section. The other three, Carbon , beryllium , and chlorine are produced by cosmic rays–high energy particles and photons in space–as they hit the Earth’s upper atmosphere.
Very small amounts of each of these isotopes are present in the air we breathe and the water we drink. As a result, living things, both plants and animals, ingest very small amounts of carbon , and lake and sea sediments take up small amounts of beryllium and chlorine The cosmogenic dating clocks work somewhat differently than the others.
Carbon in particular is used to date material such as bones, wood, cloth, paper, and other dead tissue from either plants or animals. To a rough approximation, the ratio of carbon to the stable isotopes, carbon and carbon , is relatively constant in the atmosphere and living organisms, and has been well calibrated. Once a living thing dies, it no longer takes in carbon from food or air, and the amount of carbon starts to drop with time.
Since the half-life of carbon is less than 6, years, it can only be used for dating material less than about 45, years old. Dinosaur bones do not have carbon unless contaminated , as the dinosaurs became extinct over 60 million years ago.
The Age of the Earth
Association of American State Geologists. In part, they measure the age of rocks and other natural materials by dating techniques. Geologists use a dating technique called K-Ar geochronology to find the age of layers of volcanic ash in ice cores. The half-life of K-Ar is 1.
Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed. The method compares the abundance of a naturally occurring radioactive isotope within the material to the abundance of its decay products, which form at a known constant rate of decay.
It is the only method used to date extremely old archaeological materials due to its half-life being 1. Potassium is one of the most abundant elements known to man. One out of every 10, Potassium atoms are radioactive K When this rock is heated to its melting point, any Ar it is composed of releases into the atmosphere. As the K in the rock decays into Ar , the gas is trapped inside the rock itself.
The Potassium-Argon dating method is an invaluable tool for those archaeologists that are studying the earliest evidence for human evolution. However, just as all dating techniques, there are limitations. One limitation is that it works on almost any igneous or volcanic rock, as long as it has not gone through a heating recrystallization process after the initial formation of the rock.